There are 5 types of nutrients our body needs in order to be able to function properly: carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals. The sufficient intake and the balance of these nutrients are essential to protect your health. The body uses these nutrients to provide the energy required for growth, healing and for physical or mental activities in general. If your nutrient intake is insufficient or in case you do not attain the right balance, your body becomes malnourished.
The disease-induced malnutrition represents the type of malnutrition triggered by disease or medical conditions. This is one of the main justifications for malnutrition in developed states, especially amongst the elderly, because many of the conditions leading to malnutrition are age-related.
The most commonly encountered medical conditions leading to malnutrition include oncological conditions, such as cancer, lung conditions, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or cystic fibrosis (CF), and gastrointestinal disorders, such as the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Certain treatments administered for these conditions can also have a negative impact on nutrition, such as, for instance, chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
Malnutrition is a cause, as well as a consequence, of a poor health condition: low food intake, especially for long periods of time, which induces predisposition to diseases and injuries that may inflict a low appetite through a variety of mechanisms entangling a low food intake. Hence, there is a vicious circle that often requires medical intervention. If you, or one of your acquaintances, suffer from malnutrition or are exposed to a malnutrition risk, it is recommended that you turn for advice and support to a healthcare professional, such as a general practitioner or a nutritionist.
More information on products for disease-induced malnutrition is available here [click]
The main purpose of the research and development initiatives in oncology is to identify efficient cancer therapies. Thousands of researchers embark daily on a fight against time to find therapeutic solutions for a condition that is affecting an increasing number of people. The identification of the transmission routes of the signals triggering this disease shows us that each individual is unique with regards to the cancer triggering cause, the evolution of the disease and the treatment response. There are multiple cancer routes at a molecular level.
Previously unknown connections among signaling proteins are still being discovered. It is currently possible to intimately penetrate the very DNA of each individual, in order to find out what was it that triggered the onset of cancer in the particular individual’s case. Today, we are able to analyze the tumor cell and identify its behavior both at the level of the surface and in depth, in its nucleus. This information helps us identify the cause and act properly, but also monitor the treatment response of the tumor cells and adjust our therapeutic strategy.
TORUS PHARMA currently provides state-of-the-art services, springing from research, with the support of a network of specialists throughout the world, joining forces to help each and every patient struggling to defeat the disease of the century. Our services help medical doctors decide on an efficient therapeutic strategy, thus improving the patient’s condition and decreasing the global treatment costs associated to an inefficient therapy.
Obstetrics & Gynecology
Whether they are expecting or have just been through a surgical intervention, women currently benefit from modern maternal or fetal risk anticipation methods, as well as from efficient treatments thanks to the research and technological developments in the field of this medical specialty.
The Double Test or 1st Quarter Prenatal Screening detects the potential conditions of the baby starting with the very first pregnancy quarter, being performed between the 9th and 14th pregnancy week. The test is used to identify any chromosomal abnormalities that might occur after conception. Chromosomal disorders are present in 1 out of 700 births. It is used to assess the risk of chromosomal malformation, such as: Down Syndrome (trisomy 21), Edwards Syndrome (trisomy 18), cystic fibrosis, cardiac malformations, Tay-Sacs disease, spina bifida, sickle cell anemia.
A number of screening tests are currently available for pregnant women and the Double Test can be used to determine whether the baby suffers from Down Syndrome or not. Moreover, all future mothers are advised to take the test, so as to make sure that their baby is perfectly healthy.
The Double Test has the advantage that it is carried out starting with the very first pregnancy quarter, when any intervention on the fetus is less invasive. The test is performed either separately, through a blood test, or accompanied by an ultrasound screening. There are several methods to perform a double test. The safest and most accurate is the one compiling the biochemical data of the mother with a fetal ultrasound screening performed by accredited FMF ultrasound screening specialists.
Pregnant women are now able to find out, with a confidence level of 99%, whether there is a risk of trisomy or of pregnancy preeclampsia for the mother. Of course, after this information becomes available, a decision needs to be made, which is often not an easy one. Hence, it is critical that the risk calculation is an accurate one.
Surgical interventions in the field of obstetrics & gynecology often leave scars, which, in addition to the aesthetics, are also disturbing through the symptomatology they trigger: skin stricture/tension, reddening, pruritus, pain. Regardless of how old they are, the specialists in the Netherlands have developed the silicone gel and patches BAP SCAR CARE, which repair the scar by hydration and the rebuilding of the hydric balance, make it suppler, and help remit the troublesome symptomatology.
Transplantation, the transfer of living cells, tissue or organs, is a unique procedure in medicine. In fact, its main purpose, i.e. to reinstate the health condition of the individual, comes into conflict with the basic function of the human immune function: to preserve the integrity of the body by fighting everything that is alien to it.
In order to be successful, transplantation requires targeted manipulation of the immune system, guaranteeing that the transplanted tissue is well tolerated by the body. At the same time, the ability of the body to fight other threats, such as infections, should remain intact.
The development of selective immunosuppressive drugs is an important progress in transplantation. There currently are three approaches: cortisol-based products, which generally suppress the immune system, lymphocyte metabolism inhibitors, and antibodies against all lymphocytes or specifically targeting lymphocytes T. The latter are the most suitable to prevent rejection, and for the treatment of severe rejection-related reactions, which thus cannot be controlled through other types of medication.
AIC and Emergency Medicine
AIC (Anesthesia and Intensive Care) is a specialty caring for patients with severe and life threatening conditions and with lesions that require permanent monitoring and support, with the help of equipment and medication, so as to ensure support for the functions of the body. The conditions commonly treated in such units are: trauma, acute respiratory failure, multiple organ failure, sepsis.
Regarding the sepsis condition, a reliable indicator of the sepsis condition and of its evolution under antibiotic treatment is Procalcitonin. The Procalcitonin dosing may be performed semi-quantitatively, being useful in the differential diagnosis of the sepsis condition versus localized infection or viral infection. Procalcitonin can also be dosed quantitatively, the determination being useful in assessing the efficacy of chemotherapy and of the sepsis patient management.
The semi-quantitative dosing of Procalcitonin can be performed using the PCTQ test, while the quantitative dosing can be performed using the Kryptor Compact Plus analyzer.
Another determination in emergency and AIC medicine is blood typing, which is important especially in polytrauma with extensive blood loss, but also pre- and post-surgery in various surgical interventions. In the case of blood transfusions, another important aspect is comparing the donor-receiver results, but the instancy and easiness of the test is also an important aspect to consider. Serafol is the test that responds to all these requirements.
Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) is a quite frequent type of arrhythmia with an occurrence rate of 2.5 at 1,000 adults. TPSV in the absence of a structural cardiac disease may occur at any agent, most frequently between ages 12 and 30. Most patients with AV-nodal reentrant tachycardia- or AV reentrant tachycardia-related TPSV do not suffer from structural cardiac conditions, even though exceptions do exist (e.g., Epstein Disease).
Because TPSV is a quite well tolerated arrhythmia, which does not require immediate electrical cardioversion, most patients may be treated with physiological maneuvers or with drugs. Quite a number of patients are educated to use vagal maneuvers against the acute TPSV episode. The Valsalva maneuver is the most efficient technique in adults, but carotid sinus massage can also be successfully used. The efficacy of vagal maneuvers decreases in the case of a sympathetic response to TPSV, which is why patients need to be educated to use these methods as early as possible as of the onset of TPSV.
Orally administered antiarrhythmic drugs are not absorbed quickly enough in order to be efficient in the treatment of acute TPSV episodes, even though good results may be obtained in certain patients through the administration of crushed tablets. Many patients with extensive TPSV episodes require parenteral therapy.
Adenosine and non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers are the first line drugs in the treatment of TPSV.
ADENOSIN LIFE MEDICAL (adenosinum)
Adenosine slows down the atrioventricular nodal conduction, causing the temporary blocking of the atrioventricular node. The effect of adenosine is typically observed 15-30 seconds after the quick peripheral i.v. administration. The administration through a central line requires the lowering of the dose, the 1mg dose being the most suitable one. The efficient dose for peripheral administration in adults is of 2.5 to 25 mg. Adenosine has minor adverse effects, such as dyspnea or transitional thoracic pain.
At the end of the TPSV episode, atrial or ventricular extrasystoles or even atrial fibrillation may occur, which can be dangerous if the patient has an accessory pathway capable of quick anterograde conduction.
Because adenosine has a very short half-life, TPSV distribution after the end of the first episode is not rare. Under these circumstances, the administration of the same adenosine dose may be repeated, or a calcium channel blocker may be administered.
The purpose of plastic surgery is to improve appearance and, hence, self-esteem. An important aspect in plastic surgery is represented by scars, whether post-surgery or as a consequence of trauma, irradiation or burns, or, in some cases, following laser dermatological interventions. If the medical doctor’s expertise does not allow for the removal of the scar, if the scar persists and it is associated to a bothersome symptomatology, there currently are solutions springing from years of research. These solutions are represented by the Alhydran cream and/or the silicone-based gel or patches BAP SCAR, available in various shapes and sizes.
Endocrinology is a medical specialty dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases caused by hormonal unbalances.
Endocrinology covers several body functions, such as metabolism coordination, breathing, sensorial perception, reproduction, movement.
Adrenal gland cancer is a rare type of cancer that affects the endocrine tissue of the adrenal glands. It is characterized by the excessive production of adrenal hormones. Adrenal glands are pairing endocrine glands located in the upper part of the kidneys. They are made up of two main areas, cortical and medullar. The main hormone secreted by the adrenal cortical is cortisol, while in the case of the medullar area, adrenalin is secreted. In the case of tumors located at the level of the adrenal glands, they secrete high quantities of cortisol and/or adrenalin. The most common type of adrenal gland cancer is of cortical origin and it is referred to as adrenocortical cancer. It may cause high blood pressure, weight gain, excessive body hair, bone frailty and diabetes.
The cancer located in the medullar area is very rare and it is referred to as pheochromocytoma. A third type of adrenal cancer is neuroblastoma. The causes of adrenal gland cancer are not known. Some cases have been associated with hereditary diseases. In adrenocortical carcinoma, mitotane is the only available therapeutic solution ( LYSODREN).
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Thyroid cancer is the most frequent malign disorder and it represents < 1% of the total human tumors.
The monitoring of patients suffering from thyroid cancer and the detection of the relapse as quickly as possible is fundamental for the prognosis of this disease.
The determination of thyroglobulin using the most specific method is currently available in Romania in the Sanador Network https://www.sanador.ro
Hyperthyroidism is the hyper-functioning of the thyroid gland. Graves Disease, also known as the Parry or Basedow Disease, is a disorder characterized by 3 major manifestations: diffuse goiter hyperthyroidism, dermopathy and ophthalmopathy. These major manifestations do not always occur together.
Basedow Disease is a relatively frequent disorder that may occur at any age, but is more frequently encountered in the 3rd and 4th decades of life, more frequently in women. In the geographical areas where goiter is not endemic, the women to men ratio is of 7:1 as compared to the geographical regions where the ratio is much lower. The thyroid hyper-functioning in the Graves Disease is due to the anti-TSH receptor antibodies. The autoantibodies are linked to the TSH receptor on the surface of the thyrocytes and they act as thyrotropin blockers, activating the mechanisms leading to the increase of the production and release of thyroid hormones. The test is used in the differential diagnosis of hyperthyroidism; the evaluation of the endocrine ophthalmopathy; the monitoring of pregnant women with a history of Graves disease; the monitoring of the Graves disease treatment; the evaluation of hypothyroidism in the cases in which the presence of blocking antibodies is suspected; the evaluation of patients suffering from thyroid disorders where the clinical picture is varied or non-specific.
TRAK human is the only determination using human origin antibodies, which makes it the most faithful and accurate determination.
The TRAK determination using the most specific method is currently available in Romania in the Sanador Network https://www.sanador.ro
Hereditary tyrosinemia is an innate genetic metabolic error associated to a severe hepatic disease during childhood. The disease is inherited in a recessive autosomal manner, which means that, in order to develop the disease, a child must inherit two faulty genes, one from each parent. Approximately one out of 100,000 people is affected by tyrosinemia at a global level.
In the acute form of the disease, abnormalities occur in the first month of life. Babies may scarcely gain weight, the liver and the spleen may be enlarged, a dilated abdomen, the feet swelling and a tendency to bleed extensively, especially nasal bleeding. The icterus may be prominent. Despite therapy, death caused by liver failure is quite frequent between the ages of three and nine, unless a liver transplantation is performed.
In the chronic form of the disease, there is a gradual onset and the clinical features are less severe. In these children, the liver and the spleen are prominent, the abdomen is dilated with liquid, the weight gain can be reduced, and vomiting and diarrhea are frequently encountered. The affected patients generally develop cirrhosis and its related complications. Unless treated, these children may also require a liver transplantation. Life with tyrosinemia, both as a patient and as a caretaker, is highly stressful from a physical, mental and financial point of view. There is enormous pressure to ensure the strict observance of this regime, as any deviation may lead to neurological convulsions, renal and ocular disorders, liver transplantation or decease.
NITISINONA MDK (nitisinonum)
NITISINONA MDK (nitisinonum)
NITISINONA MDK (nitisinonum)
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Nosocomial Infections are infractions contracted in hospitals or other sanitary units and they concern any disease caused by microorganisms, a disease that is clinically or microbiologically detected, which affects the patient, following the hospital admission or the care received, as a hospitalized or outpatient-treated patient, or the healthcare personnel following their activity.
It reflects the changes in the human ecosystem: -abusive use of antibiotics, neglectful hygiene, -perturbing the relations between pathogenic agents, -wider immunosuppressant groups.
Their incidence is increasing everywhere in the world, the causes are both common and different, depending on the level of development of a country or region.
In theory, any pathogenic agent in the world of viruses, bacteria, parasites or fungi, can cause nosocomial infection, depending on: